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    Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Austin: University of Texas. Freddi, M. Linguistica dei corpora. Roma: Le bussole:Carocci. Gelbukh A. Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing.

    Horstmann, C. Java2, Volume I, Fondamenti.

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    Milano: SunMicrosystem Press. Howard, P. Castells and the Media: Theory and Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

    New York:Oxford University Press. Isherwood, T. A New Direction or More of the Same?. Oxford: University of Oxford. Leurs, K. Digital Passages: Migrant Youth 2. Liddy, L. Lotan, G. The Arab Spring. International Journal of Communication, 5, — Lutz, M.

    Imparare Python. Milano: Hops TecnicheNuove. McCaughey, M. Mezran, K. Storia e future. Roma: Donzelli Editore. Moll, Y. Peters, K. InSnickars, P, Vonderau, P eds. Stockholm: Wallflower Press, Raddawi, R. Sharjah: Springer. Radsch, C. Renad, G. Arab News Rietbroek, P. Simone, R. Fondamenti di linguistica, Roma-Bari: Laterza. Taysir, S. Wall, M. When we ap- ply this concept to the Teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language TAFL we are confronted with the fact that Arabic native speakers, in carrying out the various SCT suggested by proficiency guidelines, do not resort to just a single variety of their language.

    For example, when asking the price of an item in the marketplace they will use a colloquial Arabic variety CA whereas when writing an academic essay they will resort to standard Arabic SA. The inclusion of the CA in the teaching of Arabic is particularly problematic. Although the ideas expressed in this chapter come from a joint research project of both authors, Manuela E. Giolfo is to be held responsible for sections 2, 5, and 6, and Fede- rico Salvaggio for sections 1, 3, and 4.

    Giolfo, F. This exclusion of CA from most Arabic curricula is related both to ideological factors such as the notion of language prestige associated with SA and practical factors such as the lack of standardization of CA, the great number of existing colloquial varieties, and the scarcity of adequate instructional materials Younes, Consequently, applying proficiency frameworks to TAFL implies not only the necessity of elaborating an approach that integrates both CA and SA but also of developing tools that allow the reproduction, inside and outside the classroom, of the complex varieties interactions at play in authentic linguistic contexts and that help to over- come some of the practical difficulties encountered in the teaching of CA.

    In particular, we will illustrate how such VLEs allow the integration of lan- guage activities that, as it is the case in the real world, entail multiple skills, engage multiple senses, and involve multiple language varieties within a unified cognitive framework.

    This way VLE will be essential in supporting effective language acquisition and contributing to the enhancement of au- thentic proficiency in Arabic. Varieties interaction in the light of CEFR As seen above, one of the main challenges in the application of proficiency guidelines to TAFL is that of having to deal with more than one variety at once.

    The main difficulty behind that is to establish which variety or varieties should be introduced at different stages of the learning process and how. This way, proficiency frameworks will serve as a trace for the development of our model of integration of CA and SA throughout the whole learning and teaching process. In the present study we will focus on CEFR as a reference framework cf.

    Al-Batal, ; Eisele, ; Taha, In doing that, we will move from upper levels to lower levels. Thus we will first highlight the complexity of variety interactions that take place at advanced levels and which reflect the actual linguistic behavior of native speakers in authentic contexts and then move downwards through CEFR levels in order to show how in connection with the SCT envisaged at inter- mediate and lower levels we witness a more polarized division of tasks and varieties.

    Such polarization only exists at lower and intermediate levels and as a mere consequence of the nature of the specific SCT envisaged at those levels.

    It does not reflect per se the reality of the linguistic choices operated by native speakers in authentic contexts. Thus, although the ideal ultimate goal, for the learners, remains that of reaching a proficiency level at which they are able to fully mimic those choices, in order to reach that level they will have to start from CEFR levels where the SCT involved imply a more rigid distinction of CA and SA or a clear predominance of one variety on the other.

    At this level some tasks may also be carried out by using a mix of CA and SA. At level B1 both varieties are, as at level C2, used in equal proportions. Then at level B1 both varieties are again equally represented. As already mentioned the dichotomy between varieties that we observe at lower levels does not represent per se the linguistic reality of the Arabic language in authentic contexts and as the levels progress learners will become more and more aware of the extreme variability of the Arabic language and of the complex varieties interactions that take place in real-life situations.

    Salvaggio S , reading R , writing W , associated with them at each level. As done above we will follow CEFR general overview of proficiency levels ibid. We will group the four basic language skills into two sets of skills by virtue of the communication channel involved: written skills, i. We can visualize the distribution of written and oral skills throughout CEFR six levels by means of following figure.

    At level C1 oral and written skills are perfectly balanced. At level B2 oral and written skills diverge again and this time written skil- ls prevail over oral skills and reach their maximum representation throu- ghout CEFR six levels.

    At level B1 skills are again equally represented. At level A2 oral and written skills diverge again with oral skills prevailing over written skills and at level A1 oral skills reach their maximum repre- sentation throughout CEFR six levels.

    The distribution of SA prevails on that of written skills and that of oral skills prevails over that of CA. Conversely, at intermediate B2, B1 and lower levels A2, A1 SA tends to be predominately associated with written tasks and CA to oral skills and therefore we observe a clear concordance betwe- en the distribution of respectively SA and written skills and CA and oral skills.

    This is extremely significant in that it allows us to identify a strong correlation at these specific levels between the execution of SCT based on the use of written and oral skills and the resort respectively to SA and CA.

    What we can conclude from the analysis of Fig. Salvaggio that reflect the linguistic behavior of native speakers in authentic contexts, although we can observe a certain correlation between CA and oral skills and SA and written skills, this correlation is not particularly strong and binding and both CA and SA can be associated with both oral and written skills.

    At intermediate-lower levels the correlation between the resort to CA or SA on one side and the tasks based on the use of respectively oral or written skills on the other becomes clearer and more binding. Such a VLE can also accommodate the management of multiple colloquial varieties which represents one of the greater challenges in traditional tea- ching Younes, Moreover a similar VLE allows the integration of complex learning activities involving multiple skills, multiple senses, and multiple language varieties within a unified cognitive framework all ele- ments which are essential for effective learning Netten and Germain, ; Gilakjani, Ismail, and Ahmadi, ; Balboni, In order to understand how such a VLE can be realized we will first have to consider the way in which the four basic skills are related to ICT.

    In human-computer interaction HCI each of the two sides i. The consequence of that is that ICT by using different output channels audio vs. Distinguishing activities involving different skills and different language varieties by means of distinct output channels is essential when dealing with a multiple varieties linguistic environment, such as that of the con- temporary Arabic, where oral conversations are very often associated with colloquial varieties that are not normally written.

    Salvaggio rent colloquial varieties they can be easily stored in digital form and used by teachers and learners that can select specific samples in the particular colloquial variety or varieties that they are interested in on the basis of their peculiar needs. This flexibility in the choice of the colloquial variety or varieties can represent an important contribution of ICT in response to the problems outlined above of the current limited availability of printed resources on colloquial varieties and of the existence of many colloquial va- rieties As far as written texts are concerned, ICT allows their reproduction in the form of visual outputs displayed through screens, monitors, etc.

    Not only ICT enables the use in the teaching and learning practice of an impressive number of written texts extracted from digital libraries but per- mits the exposure to contemporary written digital texts presenting various uses and combinations of SA and CA such as those encountered on Face- book, Twitter, WhatsApp, Snapchat, and other instant messaging digital applications. Furthermore, through ICT, listening activities and reading activities can be integrated into more complex activities in order to accom- plish tasks that involve the use of both oral and written skills.

    As we will see in the following section, through ICT we can design digital activities that integrate both oral and written skills by managing oral and written tasks through distinct channels and devices.

    We can thus realize complex realistic and meaningful learning activities that integrate multiple tasks and multiple skills, involve multiple senses and body human systems, and require the use of multiple language varieties.

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    VLE activities As a consequence of the present stage of development of ICT only percep- tive skills listening and reading can directly be addressed and effectively exercised through in HCI.

    Productive skills speaking and writing can directly be addressed and exercised through HCI only to a limited extent and as long as the vocabulary used is restricted to circumscribed domains Dix, Finlay, Abowd, and Beale, 70 e For this reason in the present section we will mainly focus on digital activities involving listening and reading activities.

    As an example, we will illustrate how VLE activities work in connection with different phases of the acquisition process such as: 1. In this activity a foreign traveler arrives at the airport of an Arab country where he has to answer some routine questions. After doing that he is asked to fill in a form with personal details.

    In the activity liste- ning and reading skills are separated through different output channels audio for listening and video for reading. Moreover in accordance with the general separation of varieties at lower levels, described above, CA and SA are also separated by associating the first to listening activities and the second to reading activities.

    Despite the fact that varieties and skills are processed via different channels the whole activity is presented to the lear- ners within a unifying framework. This is done by introducing the activity with a general description of the situational context and accompanying that by pictures.

    A multiple choice quiz is used to represent the form to be filled in. This reflects the actual distribution of varieties related to these specific SCT in real-life situations. The following table describes the division of tasks, varieties, and channels in the illustrated activity.

    Skills, varieties, tasks, channels at lower levels As we can see, in this first activity, the role of ICT is critical in enabling code-separation via different output channels thus reproducing the very clear association of CA with oral skills and SA with written skills that is typically related to lower levels. Intermediate levels On the same website, as an example of digital activities specifically concei- ved to enhance language proficiency at intermediate levels, we proposed an activity in which a foreign student goes to a real estate agency in an Arab country to rent a flat.

    After having a short conversation with the agency employee about the terms of the rental of an available flat, the student is presented with a copy of the lease agreement which he has to check it in or- der to verify its correspondence with the terms previously discussed. Again, as it is the case in real life, the oral conversation is carried out in CA and the lease agreement is written in SA. As in the example above by using different output channels audio vs.

    For the reasons illustrated above this activity too is introduced by a general description of the situational context accompanied by pictures with the aim of activating global and contextual perception. A multiple choice quiz is used within the digital activity to represent the lease agreement. The following table describes the division of tasks, varieties, and channels in this second activity.

    Skills, varieties, tasks, channels at intermediate levels As in authentic situational contexts this activity cannot be accompli- shed without an integrated use of both varieties. Salvaggio Tab. Advanced levels For advanced levels we proposed an activity in which a journalist working at an editorial office of an Arab newspaper has to sum up in an article the content of an interview with a prominent figure.

    The journalist watches the registration of the interview and then writes a short summary. The le- arner has to check the summary in order to verify its consistency with the content of the interview.

    The first part involving listening skills is presented in form of audio-and-video output while the second part dealing with reading skills in form of visual output. The summary is represented by a multiple choice quiz. During the interview the host and the guest resort to a mixture of CA and SA and adopt various code-mixing and co- de-switching strategies.

    The following table describes the division of tasks, varieties, and channels in this third activity. This has a fundamental role in enhancing the acquisition process as demonstra- ted by contemporary language acquisition theories based on neurolingui- stic research. For effective language acquisition, implication of these centers is required. Engaging different senses sight, hearing, touch and body movement within the teaching and learning process has, according to current research on the relation between multimodality and second language acquisition, a very positive impact on language acquisition.

    For learners to be engaged into a subject, they need to relate themselves and connect their everyday life to the learning material; in other words, they need to be situated. Conclusions In the present contribution we illustrated how several limitations of the traditional learning environment render the implementation of an approa- ch to TAFL based on proficiency frameworks and on the integration of CA and SA a particularly problematic process.

    We suggested the importance of ICT vis-à-vis this challenging task. In particular we pointed out how ICT can be used to create a VLE that enables teachers and learners to overco- me many of the limitations of traditional learning environments.

    In this respect we emphasized the crucial role of ICT in presenting learners with audio and video outputs reproducing the complex variety interactions that we witness in real-life situations and that are represented by the various SCT envisaged at advanced proficiency levels. This ability of ICT of re- creating complexity inside the classroom through VLE can be seen as the condicio sine qua non for an effective enhancement of authentic proficiency in Arabic.

    Nevertheless the role of ICT is not limited to that. ICT plays a critical role also in this respect. At intermediate and lower levels, where we observe a more rigid separation of oral and written skills and a strict association of those skills with respectively colloquial and standard varie- ties, ICT enables the separate targeting of oral and written skills through different channels and output devices.

    Despite different tasks being se- parated via different channels at these specific levels, we illustrated how through ICT we can bring together distinct SCT within a unified cogniti- ve framework and realize digital activities that entail multiple skills, engage multiple senses, and involve multiple language varieties. Salvaggio cognitive framework needed to activate specific brain modalities that fo- ster language acquisition. Its main contribution lies in the attempt to tackle all these issues simultane- ously from an original, coherent, and theoretically consistent perspective.

    It also argues that we have nowadays the technology to turn that perspecti- ve into practice. The fortune of specific pedagogic approaches at some point in the past can be related to the concurrent diffusion in that particular period of te- chnologies and learning tools that supported the implementation of those approaches. Thus, for instance, the implementation on a large scale of communicative methods, that emphasized the harmonious development of all four basic language skills through the exposure to different authen- tic materials, would not have been conceivable without the simultaneous availability of sound and video reproduction technologies Chini and Bo- sisio, Our hope is therefore that our variation-driven ICT-ba- sed approach for proficiency enhancement in TAFL may suggest Arabic te- achers, pedagogues, and linguists alternative strategies and new pedagogic approaches to deal with the multiple contemporary challenges faced the discipline.

    In a very delicate historical phase, such as the one lived by the contemporary Arab world, where radical transformations of institutions and societies are revolutionizing many aspects of life including language practices, we deem that new technologies can play a decisive role in hel- ping us to reproduce that complexity.

    At the same time, we are convinced that, in order for technologies to really make a difference, we first have to develop theoretical frameworks for complexity management, such as the one proposed here, that can provide us with a guideline for an effective and revolutionary application of those technologies.

    Only at this point we will be able to use ICT, and VLE in particular, to support the much desirable and long-awaited transition towards a variation-driven and proficiency-ba- sed paradigm for authentic proficiency enhancement in TAFL.

    Alosh, M. Operational Models For Language Education. Perugia: Guerra Edizioni. Chini, M. Fondamenti di glottodidattica.

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    Apprendere e insegnare le lingue oggi. Roma: Carocci editore. Dix, A. Finlay, G. Abowd, and R. Human- Computer Interaction. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Eisele, J. Wahba, Z. Taha, and L. England eds. Mahwah, N. Gilakjani, A.

    Ismail, and S. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 1, 10 , Giolfo, M. In Al-Batal, M. Integrating the Dialect within the Arabic Curriculum. Kallas, E. Venezia: Cafoscarina. Khamis-Dakwar, R. Neurocognitive modeling of the two language varieties in Arabic Diglossia. In Khamis-Dakwar, R. Froud eds. Salvaggio the annual symposium on Arabic Linguistics. Netten, J. A new paradigm for the learning of a second or foreign language. Neuroeducation 1 1 , Palmer, J.

    Taha, Z. Wahba, K. In Wahba K. Younes, M. The Integrated Approach to Arabic Instruction. London and New York: Routledge.

    Vedovelli Questo è, infatti, uno degli aspetti più critici per la valutazione della lingua araba, il quale rende senza dubbio la costruzione di un test affidabile una sfida a tutti gli effetti. I questionari, evidenziano come le principali motivazioni allo studio della lingua araba che interessano il pub- blico adulto siano legate nella maggior parte dei casi ad un forte interesse e curiosità verso questa lingua e alla relativa cultura, ma anche alla possi- bilità di favorire le dinamiche interculturali e quindi il contatto fra lingue e culture, unitamente alla motivazione strumentale connessa alla possibi- lità di avere maggiori opportunità nel mondo del lavoro.

    Dalle indagini emerge dunque come le motivazioni del pubblico di studenti di lingua araba abbiano subito dei radicali cambia- menti rispetto al passato in cui gli obiettivi principali dello studio della lingua erano per lo più legati al poter accedere ai testi antichi di letteratu- ra, filosofia e scienza. Nasimi Tab. Segue una riflessione approfondita circa la possibilità di applicare gli standard e i criteri del QCER alla valutazione della lingua araba.

    Nasimi tuali aspetti problematici legati alla costruzione dei quesiti e alla scelta dei testi rispetto ai risultati ottenuti nel test e quindi alle effettive capacità e competenze in lingua araba proprie degli studenti. Le prove soggettive vedi appendici 3, 4, 5, 6 , caratterizzate da un giudizio di tipo soggettivo del valutatore, non essendo provviste di risposte corrette prestabilite, sono in questo caso le prove di produzione scritta e le prove di produzione orale.

    La prova di produzione scritta è stata sostenuta da tutti i partecipanti di entrambe i test in quanto parte integrante dei test stessi, mentre alla prova orale sono stati sottoposti, in un momento diverso da quello della somministrazione dei test, due gruppi ristretti di candidati fra coloro i quali hanno sostenuto le prove di esame.

    Tale dato fa sospettare come probabilmente il tempo messo a disposizione non sia stato sufficiente per una fetta importante dei candidati, che non sono riusciti a completare il test. I risultati delle prove di produzione orale di livello A1 evidenziano come queste siano state superate da quattro candidati sui sette totali che hanno partecipato alla prova.

    Nasimi di quanto detto dalla valutatrice. Delle sei prove di produzione orale so- stenute per il livello A2 invece, quelle superate sono state due. Nasimi Bibliografia Albirini, A. Barni, M. Bassiouney, R. Calvet, L. Le marché aux langues. Les effets linguistiques de la mondialisation. Paris: Les Editions Plon. Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le lingue: apprendimento, insegnamento e valutazione. Milano: La Nuova Italia.

    De Mauro, T. Roma: Editori Riuniti. Italiano Bulzoni: Roma. Dialettologia araba. In Giglioli P. Gebril, A. Assessing Arabic, in Kunnan A. Rammuny, R. Winke, P. Issues in developing standardized tests of Arabic language proficiency.

    Wahba, Taha, Zeinab A.

    England A c. The integrated approach to Arabic instruction. Oxon, New York: Routledge. Per ragioni accademi- che, Cristina Solimando si assume la responsabilità dei parr. Solimando, R. I sei livelli di riferimento A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2 sono universalmente accettati come parametri per valutare il livello di competenze linguistiche individuali, identificato nelle quattro abilità riconosciute lettura, ascolto, produzione orale e scrittura.

    Nella parte finale, sarà discussa la questione relativa alla scelta del FSA Formal Spoken Arabic come varietà da inserire sia nella programmazione didattica sia nei test di valutazione per la certificazione delle competenze. Abdelsalam 1. Il QCER: quale arabo insegnare? Emerge, infatti, in modo sempre più chiaro il desi- derio degli studenti di acquisire una competenza autentica anche grazie alla maggiore esposizione alla L2 al di fuori della classe di lingua: oltre ai più frequenti soggiorni in paesi arabi, gli apprendenti vengono a contatto con le diverse varietà della lingua attraverso i media e i social network.

    Come trattare i dialetti e quale posto riservargli? È meglio scegliere un dialetto o più di uno? Come sensibilizzare i neo-locutori ai diversi livelli linguistici, sia scritti sia orali? La questione della variazione consente, infatti, di riflettere non solo sul- la differenziazione tra livelli, ma anche ai generi testuali e ai mezzi intesi come supporto della comunicazione. Per questa ragione i test di valutazione fino ad oggi proposti hanno considerato esclusivamente la conoscenza della varietà standard.

    Il MSA è la varietà nella quale tutti gli arabofoni si riconoscono, è strumento indi- spensabile per leggere e scrivere ed è, inoltre, la varietà utilizzata in contesti ufficiali.

    A tal fine, la scheda che il quadro comune propone, e che riportiamo qui di seguito per quanto riguarda la competenza sociolinguistica e comu- nicativa, è stato il modello al quale ci siamo ispirati. Nella seguente tabella riporteremo i livelli di competenza, i requisiti sanciti dal QCER e la varietà araba da adottare a seconda del livello: C2 Ha buona padronanza di espressioni idiomatiche e colloquiali ed è consapevole dei livelli di connotazione semantica.

    Coglie pienamente le implicazioni sociolinguistiche e sociocul- turali del linguaggio di un parlante nativo e reagisce in modo adeguato. È in grado di mediare efficacemente tra parlanti della lingua in DIALETTI questione e della lingua della sua comunità di origine, tenendo conto delle differenze socioculturali e sociolinguistiche. È in grado di comprendere film in cui si fa ampio uso di espres- sioni gergali e idiomatiche. È in grado di usare la lingua per scopi sociali in modo flessibile ed efficace, includendo anche le dimensioni affettive, allusive e umoristiche.

    Riesce, con qualche sforzo, ad intervenire in una discussione prendendovi parte, anche se gli interlocutori parlano velocemen- te e in modo colloquiale. È in grado di esprimersi in modo adeguato alla situazione ed evita errori grossolani di formulazione. È consapevole delle più importanti regole di cortesia e le rispetta.

    È consapevole delle più significative differenze esistenti tra usi e costumi, atteggiamenti, valori e credenze prevalenti della comu- nità in questione e la propria e ne ricerca i segnali. A2 È in grado di realizzare atti linguistici di base, quali richieste e scambi di informazioni, di rispondervi e di esprimere in modo semplice opinioni e atteggiamenti.

    È in grado di socializzare in modo semplice ma efficace, usando le espressioni comuni più semplici e attenendosi alle convenzio- ni di base. MSA È in grado di gestire scambi comunicativi molto brevi, usando formule convenzionali correnti per salutare e rivolgere la parola a qualcuno. È in grado di fare inviti, dare suggerimenti, chiedere scusa e rispondere a mosse analoghe. In questo schema, appare evidente la progressione nella conoscenza degli usi colloquiali e informali: si passa, infatti, dai convenevoli di un li- vello A1 fino alla padronanza di colloquialismi ed espressioni idiomatiche del livello C2.